Computational Linguistics: An Easy Explanation With Examples, Advancements & Future Trends

by | Jan 25, 2024 | Data Science, Natural Language Processing

What is Computational Linguistics?

Computational linguistics is an interdisciplinary field that combines principles of linguistics and computer science to develop computational models and algorithms for understanding, processing, and generating human language. The primary goal of computational linguistics is to enable computers to interact with human language meaningfully and efficiently.

Key components of computational linguistics include:

  1. Natural Language Processing (NLP): NLP is a subset of computational linguistics focusing on the interaction between computers and human language. It involves developing algorithms and models to enable computers to understand, interpret, and generate human language in a contextually relevant way.
  2. Speech Recognition: This aspect of computational linguistics deals with developing technologies that allow computers to convert spoken language into text. Speech recognition has applications in various fields, including voice-activated assistants, transcription services, and voice-controlled systems.
  3. Information Retrieval: Computational linguistics is crucial in developing search engines and information retrieval systems that can understand the user’s query and provide relevant results. This involves analysing the structure and meaning of language to enhance the accuracy of search algorithms.
  4. Machine Translation: Machine translation focuses on developing systems that automatically translating text or speech from one language to another. This is particularly important in our globalised world, facilitating communication across linguistic boundaries.
  5. Syntax and Semantics Analysis: Computational linguistics involves creating models to analyse sentences’ grammatical structure (syntax) and meaning (semantics). This helps extract meaningful information from a text and improve the context’s understanding.
  6. Corpus Linguistics: Computational linguists often work with extensive collections of text, or corpora, to analyse patterns in language usage. This helps in developing statistical models and algorithms for various language-related tasks.
  7. Deep Learning and Neural Networks: With the advent of deep learning, computational linguistics has seen significant advancements. Neural networks and deep learning techniques are employed to enhance the performance of language-related tasks, such as sentiment analysis, language generation, and more.
what is computational linguistics

Computational linguistics has practical applications in various domains, including natural language interfaces for software, chatbots, sentiment analysis, and information extraction from text. As technology advances, computational linguistics is crucial in improving human-computer interaction and addressing the challenges of understanding and processing natural language.

Foundations of Computational Linguistics

In the journey to unravel the wonders of computational linguistics, it is essential to delve into its historical evolution and understand the foundational elements that have shaped this interdisciplinary field.

Historical Evolution

1. Early Efforts and Milestones

  • Computational linguistics traces its roots back to the mid-20th century when pioneers like Alan Turing and Claude Shannon explored the idea of machines understanding and generating human language.
  • Landmark developments in the 1950s, such as creating the first-ever language translation programs, laid the groundwork for computational linguistics.

2. Emergence of Key Theories and Concepts

  • Chomsky’s Transformational-Generative Grammar: No discussion of the foundations of computational linguistics is complete without acknowledging Chomsky’s influential work. His theories provided a formal framework for understanding the structure of languages.
  • Formal Language Theory: The contributions of mathematicians like Noam Chomsky and Alonzo Church introduced formal language theory, a mathematical approach to describing the structure of languages.

Core Components

1. Linguistics and its Relationship with Computation

  • Synergy with Linguistics: Computational linguistics draws extensively from linguistic theories to model the intricacies of language structures. It integrates phonetics, morphology, syntax, semantics, and pragmatics to create comprehensive language models.
  • Computational Formalisms: The application of mathematical and computational formalisms allows for the representation and manipulation of linguistic structures within a computational framework.

2. Key Linguistic Theories Influencing Computational Linguistics

  • Chomskyan Linguistics: Transformational-Generative Grammar and Universal Grammar have been pivotal in shaping computational models for language understanding and generation.
  • Statistical Linguistics: The advent of statistical methods, including probabilistic models, has influenced how computational linguistics deals with uncertainty and ambiguity in language.

As we explore the foundations, it becomes evident that computational linguistics is not merely a marriage of linguistics and computer science but a dynamic interplay of historical milestones and theoretical frameworks that continue to evolve.

What is an Example of Computational Linguistics?

Sentiment Analysis for Customer Reviews

Imagine you are a business owner who receives a large volume of customer reviews on your e-commerce platform. Understanding the sentiments expressed in these reviews is crucial for improving products and customer satisfaction. This is where computational linguistics, specifically sentiment analysis, comes into play.

Semi-Supervised Learning Example: Text Classification with Limited Labeled Data


  1. Data Collection: Collect a dataset of customer reviews from your e-commerce platform, including positive and negative reviews.
  2. Preprocessing: Use natural language processing (NLP) techniques to preprocess the text data. This involves tokenisation, removing stop words, and stemming/lemmatisation to prepare the text for analysis.
  3. Building a Sentiment Analysis Model: Employ machine learning or deep learning models to train a sentiment analysis algorithm. This involves using labelled data (reviews with known sentiments) to teach the model to recognise positive, negative, or neutral sentiments.
  4. Feature Extraction: Extract relevant features from the reviews, such as keywords, phrases, or linguistic patterns indicative of positive or negative sentiments.
  5. Model Training: Train the sentiment analysis model using techniques like supervised learning. The model learns to associate specific linguistic features with positive or negative sentiments.
  6. Testing and Evaluation: Evaluate the model’s performance on separate reviews not used during training. This helps ensure the model generalises well to new data.
  7. Integration into Business Workflow: Implement the sentiment analysis model into your business workflow. Automatically analyse incoming customer reviews to classify sentiments without manual review.
  8. Actionable Insights: Gain insights from the sentiment analysis results. Identify common themes in positive reviews to reinforce strengths and address issues highlighted in negative reviews for product improvement.


  • Efficiency: Automating sentiment analysis saves time compared to manually reading and categorising each review.
  • Trend Identification: Track sentiment trends over time to understand the impact of product changes, marketing campaigns, or external factors.
  • Customer Satisfaction Improvement: Use actionable insights to make informed decisions that enhance customer satisfaction.

This example illustrates how computational linguistics, through sentiment analysis, can be a valuable tool for businesses to extract meaningful information from large volumes of textual data, ultimately contributing to informed decision-making and improved customer experiences.

What are Common Applications of Computational Linguistics?

Computational linguistics extends beyond theoretical foundations, finding practical applications in numerous domains where human language intersects with technology. These applications showcase the transformative power of computational linguistics in shaping our digital landscape.

Natural Language Processing (NLP)

  1. Understanding the Basics of NLP
  2. Real-World Applications
    • Chatbots and Virtual Assistants: NLP enables conversational agents to understand and respond to user queries in a natural and contextually relevant manner.
    • Sentiment Analysis: Analysing text data to determine the sentiment expressed is valuable for business insights and social media monitoring.

Speech Recognition

  1. Technologies and Methodologies
    • Acoustic Modeling: Analysing sound patterns to identify phonetic elements in spoken language.
    • Language Modeling: Predicting word sequences to enhance accuracy in transcribing spoken words.
  2. Impact on Various Industries
    • Healthcare: Speech recognition facilitates medical transcription and hands-free documentation for healthcare professionals.
    • Finance: Voice-controlled systems improve accessibility and efficiency in financial transactions.

Information Retrieval

  1. Search Engines and Language Understanding
    • Semantic Search: Understanding user intent and context to deliver more relevant search results.
    • Text Summarisation: Automatically generating concise summaries of large volumes of text.
  2. Enhancing User Experience through Computational Linguistics
    • Autocorrect and Autocomplete: Predictive text features driven by linguistic models enhance user typing experiences.
    • Personalisation: Tailoring search results and content recommendations based on user language patterns.

As computational linguistics advances, its applications redefine how we interact with technology, fostering a seamless integration of language and digital systems.

What is the Difference Between Computational Linguistics and NLP?

Computational linguistics and Natural Language Processing (NLP) are related fields, and the terms are sometimes used interchangeably, but they have distinct focuses within the broader domain of language technology.

Computational Linguistics

Computational linguistics is a broader field encompassing computational methods to study language. It involves using computational techniques to model various linguistic phenomena, analyse linguistic structures, and gain insights into the properties of natural languages. Computational linguistics draws on theories and methodologies from linguistics and computer science.

Key aspects of computational linguistics include:

  1. Theoretical Linguistics: Computational linguistics often involves applying linguistic theories to create formal language structure and behaviour models.
  2. Corpus Linguistics: The analysis of large bodies of text (corpora) to identify linguistic patterns and extract information for computational models.
  3. Development of Linguistic Resources: Creating lexicons, grammars, and other linguistic resources used in various language technology applications.

Natural Language Processing (NLP)

NLP is a subfield of computational linguistics that focuses explicitly on the interaction between computers and human language. It is more application-oriented, dealing with developing algorithms and models to enable computers to understand, interpret, and generate human language in a contextually relevant way.

Key aspects of NLP include:

  1. Language Understanding: NLP is concerned with developing algorithms to understand and interpret human language, including tasks like sentiment analysis, named entity recognition, and syntactic analysis.
  2. Language Generation: Generating human-like language is another aspect of NLP, involving tasks such as machine translation, text summarisation, and dialogue system responses.
  3. Practical Applications: NLP focuses on real-world applications, such as chatbots, virtual assistants, search engine optimisation, and language translation services.

Computational linguistics is a broader field encompassing language study using computational methods. At the same time, NLP is a more specific application of computational linguistics that practically implements language technology for tasks such as understanding and generating human language. NLP can be seen as an applied subset within the larger framework of computational linguistics.

How Has Deep Learning Specifically Advanced the Field of Computational Linguistics?

Deep learning has revolutionised the field of computational linguistics, leading to significant advances in a wide range of natural language processing (NLP) tasks. Here are some of the key ways in which deep learning has transformed computational linguistics:

  1. Distributed Representations of Words and Phrases: Deep learning has enabled the development of highly effective distributed representations of words and phrases, also known as word embeddings. These representations capture the semantic and syntactic relationships between words, allowing computers to understand the context of language much more nuancedly. This has been instrumental in improving performance on various NLP tasks, including machine translation, sentiment analysis, and text classification.
  2. Neural Networks for Natural Language Understanding: Deep learning has created many neural network architectures for natural language understanding. These architectures, such as recurrent neural networks (RNNs) and convolutional neural networks (CNNs), have been shown to excel at tasks that require understanding the sequential nature of language, such as generating text, translating languages, and parsing sentences.
  3. Attention Mechanisms: Attention mechanisms have emerged as a powerful tool for improving the performance of deep learning models in NLP. These mechanisms allow models to focus on specific parts of a sentence or document, making them more adept at capturing long-range dependencies and contextual information. Attention-based models have been particularly successful in machine translation and text summarisation tasks.
  4. End-to-end Learning: Deep learning has enabled the development of end-to-end NLP models that can learn directly from raw text data without needing hand-crafted features or rules. This approach has significantly simplified the process of building NLP systems and has improved performance on various tasks.
  5. Open-source Resources and Training Data: The rise of deep learning has accompanied a surge in open-source resources and training data for NLP. This has made it easier for researchers and practitioners to develop and evaluate deep learning models, further accelerating the field’s progress.

Deep learning has transformed computational linguistics by providing new tools and techniques for understanding and processing natural language. These advances have led to significant improvements in a wide range of NLP tasks, potentially revolutionising how we interact with computers and information. As deep learning research continues to evolve, we can expect even more groundbreaking advancements in computational linguistics in the years to come.

Challenges and Innovations in Computational Linguistics

As computational linguistics pushes the boundaries of human-machine interaction, it encounters a spectrum of challenges that spark innovation. This section explores the field’s hurdles and the ingenious solutions that pave the way for groundbreaking advancements.

Ambiguity in Language

  1. Dealing with Linguistic Nuances and Context
    • Polysemy and Homonymy: Addressing words with multiple meanings and distinguishing between identical-sounding words.
    • Contextual Ambiguity: Developing models capable of understanding and interpreting language within specific contexts.
  2. Advances in Disambiguation Techniques
    • Machine Learning Approaches: Utilising supervised and unsupervised learning to train models on vast datasets for improved ambiguity resolution.
    • Contextual Embeddings: Leveraging techniques like word embeddings and contextual embeddings to capture nuanced meanings based on surrounding words.
What is a bank? Semantic analysis will allow you to determine whether it's a financial institution or the side of a river.


  1. Challenges in Diverse Language Structures
    • Syntax and Morphology Variations: Tackling differences in sentence structure and word forms across languages.
    • Idiomatic Expressions: Handling language-specific phrases and expressions that may not have direct equivalents in other languages.
  2. Breakthroughs in Cross-Language Processing

Ethical Considerations

  1. Bias and Fairness in Computational Linguistics
    • Biases in Training Data: Addressing biases present in datasets that can perpetuate stereotypes or lead to unfair algorithmic outcomes.
    • Fairness in Language Models: Striving for equitable representation and treatment across diverse linguistic and cultural groups.
  2. Ensuring Responsible AI Development
    • Explainability and Transparency: Building models that clearly explain their decision-making processes.
    • Ethical Guidelines: Implement and adhere to ethical guidelines to ensure the responsible development and deployment of language technologies.

As computational linguists confront these challenges head-on, their innovative solutions contribute not only to the field’s evolution but also to the responsible and ethical integration of language technologies into our interconnected world.

What are Future Trends in Computational Linguistics?

The landscape of computational linguistics is continually evolving, driven by technological advancements and a deeper understanding of linguistic nuances. Exploring the future trends in this dynamic field unveils a realm of possibilities that promise to reshape how we interact with language and technology.

Deep Learning in Computational Linguistics

  • Transformative Impact: Deep learning architectures, especially neural networks, are expected to be pivotal in advancing language understanding and generation capabilities.
  • Neural Language Models: Continued development of state-of-the-art models, such as transformer-based architectures, for improved performance in various language tasks.
  • Multimodal Integration: Integrating visual and textual information for a more comprehensive understanding of language in context.

Human-Machine Collaboration

  1. Integrating Human Expertise with Computational Models
    • Human-in-the-Loop Approaches: Involving human experts in refining and validating machine-generated linguistic outputs.
    • Collaborative Language Processing: Encouraging synergy between human intuition and computational efficiency for more accurate and contextually relevant language models.
  2. Shaping the Future of Human-Computer Interaction
    • Conversational AI Advancements: Creating more natural and context-aware conversational agents for seamless human-computer interaction.
    • Personalised Language Models: Tailoring language models to individual user preferences and communication styles.

Challenges and Opportunities in Emerging Technologies

  1. Quantum Computing and Linguistics
    • Computational Linguistics in Quantum Space: Exploring the potential impact of quantum computing on language processing tasks.
    • Algorithmic Innovations: Developing quantum algorithms for language-related challenges, opening new avenues for efficiency and scalability.
  2. Advancements in Explainable AI
    • Interpretable Language Models: Focusing on developing language models that clearly explain their decisions and outputs.
    • Ethical Considerations: Addressing concerns related to transparency and interpretability in language models to ensure responsible AI development.
explainable ai example with risk model

As we peer into the future of computational linguistics, the convergence of cutting-edge technologies and a deeper understanding of linguistic complexities promises a new era of language technologies that are more intuitive, responsive, and seamlessly integrated into our daily lives.


Computational linguistics and natural language processing (NLP) are at the forefront of technological advancements, where the intricate dance between language and computers unfolds. Computational linguistics, rooted in linguistic theories and mathematical formalisms, provides the theoretical foundation for understanding and modelling natural language. On the other hand, NLP takes the insights gained from computational linguistics and channels them into practical applications, bridging the gap between human language and machine understanding.

As explored in this discussion, the foundations of computational linguistics trace a rich historical evolution marked by critical milestones and influential theories. From early efforts in machine translation to the formalisation of linguistic structures, the journey has been one of continuous refinement and adaptation to the complexities of human language.

Applications of computational linguistics, particularly in NLP, exemplify the transformative impact on our digital landscape. The practical implications are vast and varied, from chatbots that engage in natural conversations to speech recognition systems that empower hands-free interactions. Information retrieval systems, driven by language understanding, enhance user experiences, while sentiment analysis unlocks valuable insights from the vast expanse of textual data.

Challenges and innovations go hand in hand in this dynamic field. Ambiguity in language, multilingualism, and ethical considerations pose hurdles that computational linguists tirelessly address. Yet, innovations abound, ranging from advanced disambiguation techniques to the moral development of language models, paving the way for responsible AI.

Deep learning emerges as a guiding force as we peer into the future, promising enhanced language models and a more profound understanding of linguistic context. Human-machine collaboration takes centre stage, emphasising the synergy between computational efficiency and human intuition. Quantum computing and explainable AI present exciting avenues for exploration, opening new dimensions in the field.

In essence, the intersection of computational linguistics and NLP continues to shape how we interact with technology and each other. The future holds the promise of more intuitive, context-aware language technologies that understand our words and resonate with the richness of human communication. As the journey unfolds, the symbiotic relationship between language and computation will undoubtedly unravel new wonders, pushing the boundaries of what is possible in human-machine interaction.

About the Author

Neri Van Otten

Neri Van Otten

Neri Van Otten is the founder of Spot Intelligence, a machine learning engineer with over 12 years of experience specialising in Natural Language Processing (NLP) and deep learning innovation. Dedicated to making your projects succeed.

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